Brain models

Methatheoretical considerations

In general there are two opposing and different schools of thought on the basic origins of systems of thought or systems of mathematics. In a simplified way these two extreme positions can be summarized as follows:

  1. In the first position one makes the metatheoretical assumption that a given system of thinking is based upon irreducible postulates — the basic beliefs of the systems. All consequences and all manipulations of the thinking machine are then merely elaborations of, combinations of, these assumptions operating upon data derived from the mind and / or from the external world. This is called the formalistic school. This school assumes that one can, with sufficiently sophisticated methods, find those postulates which are motivating and directing a given mind in its operations. A further metatheoretical assumption is that once one finds this set of postulates that then one can account for all of the operations of that mind. (Whitehead and Russell, 1927; Carnap, 194246; Tarski, 1946.)
  2. The opposing school at the opposite end of a spectrum of schools, as it were, makes the metatheoretical assumption that thinking systems arise from intuitive, essentially unknowable, substrates of mental operations (Hilbert, 1950). This school states that new kinds of thinking are created from unknown sources. Further, one is not able to arrive at all of the basic assumptions on which systems of thinking operate. Many of the assumptions from this point of view must be forever hidden from the thinker. Thus in this view the origins of thinking are wide open. With this metatheoretical assumption one can then conceive of the existence in the future of presently inconceivable systems of thought.
  3. There is an intermediate position between these two extremes in which one assumes the existence of both kinds and that each of these two extremes has something to offer. Thus one can select kinds of thinking which are subject to formalistic analysis and formalistic synthesis based upon basic beliefs. But this does not include all thinking. Some kinds continue to be based in unknown areas, sources, and methods. Metatheoretical selection is being done by selection of the formal kind of thinking from a large universe of other possibilities. This position does not state that the origins of the basic beliefs are completely specifiable. However, once some related basic beliefs are found to exist, a limited system of rules of combination of the basic beliefs giving internally consistent logical results can be devised for limited use of that system. This organization into a limited integral system of thinking and the selection of those basic beliefs which naturally fit into such systems of thinking, is a way of dividing off this territory.

Basic Effects of LSD25 on the Biocomputer


  1. One major biological effect of LSD25 may be a selective effect on growth patterns in the CNS. Some parts of the local growth patterns, i.e., the systems which are selectively active during the LSD25 state.
  2. For these postulated growth effects there is an optimal concentration of the substance in the brain. With less concentration than the optimal there is merely an irritating stimulation of the CNS (below the levels of awareness). At the optimal concentration (in the nontolerant state) the phenomena of the LSD25 state occur. This is a phase of initiation of new growth in the CNS. [This phase is a state of mind analogous to that presumed to exist in the very young human (possibly beginning in the fetus or embryo).]
  3. If additional material is administered, prolongation of this phase can be achieved within certain limits. With the maintenance of the optimal concentration of substance, this phase is prolonged (hours) until tolerance develops.
  4. The phase of developed tolerance is thought to be (in addition to other things) the phase of the completion of the fast new growth. Most of the new biochemical and neurological connections are completed.
  5. If continuous maintenance of optimal concentration for many hours (and ? days) after this initial phase is then achieved, growth may continue slowly.
  6. The growth is not thought to be confined to the central nervous system. The autonomic nervous system may grow also.
  7. If the optimal concentration is exceeded, the substance excites a „stress syndrome“ (i.e., adrenal-vascular-G.l. tract, etc.). (This syndrome is separate from the affective results of the LSD25 state which in certain individuals can cause a stress syndrome. I am not speaking of such individuals. I am speaking of more sophisticated observers who have been through the necessary and sufficient experiences to be able avoid a stress syndrome in the LSD25 state.)
  8. At concentrations above the optimal there can be a reversal of the beneficial effects in the induced stress syndrome. Antigrowth factors are stimulated. Homeostasis is thus assured in the organism. A similar phenomenon can be seen with negative programming during the LSD25 experience. Reversal of growth may be programmed in by the selfprogrammer, unconscious metaprograms, or by the outside therapist or other persons.
  9. At concentrations above optimal the resulting stress syndrome is programmed into the autonomic nervous system and continues (beyond the time of the presence of the substance) to repeat itself until reprogrammed out days or weeks later.
  10. At levels above optimal, the selfmetaprogram loses energy and circuitry to autonomous programs; the ego disappears at very high levels.

This complex series of relations shows the delicate nature of the best state for remetaprogramming and of remetaprogramming itself. Until sophisticated handling (of these substances, the selfmetaprogram, the person, the setting, the preparation, etc.) can be achieved, careful voluntary education of professional personnel should be done, and done carefully with insight. Selection of persons for training must be diplomatic and tactful; it is a strategy to be carried out cooperatively without publicity. Candor and honesty at deep levels is a prime requisite.