3 . Dynamics of surface behavior and attitudes
Given these underlying trends—dependence, hostility against the father, submission, passivity and homosexuality, and fear of weakness – it is possible to offer reasonable explanations for most of Mack’s characteristic traits and attitudes. These surface trends can be understood in large part as derivations or transformations of the deep-lying needs we have discussed. Surface and depth are connected by means of well-known psychological mechanisms. An abstract formulation of Mack’s personality, in its genetic aspects, is sketched in its general outlines in Figure 1 (XX). Genetically early forces and events appear at the bottom of the chart, and the course of development is followed by reading upward, arrows indicating the directions of determination and the points at which it is applied. No attempt is made to indicate the nature of the causation in the various instances. A rough correspondence between order in the genetic sequence and degree of depth within the contemporary personality structure is assumed, the earliest reaction tendencies being regarded as those which now lie deepest within the personality.