Kybernetische Modelle, 1950 – 1980

Insgesamt habe ich über 120 Modelle aus dieser Zeit zusammengetragen.
Diese werden kontinuierlich eingepflegt.

1950

R. Nevitt Sanford

An abstract formulation of a personality

5.1 Psychology

1951

Edward Tolman

Human Behavior

5.1 Psychologie

1952

W. Ross Ashby

Adaption As Stability

1.7 Other Natural Sciences

1961

Gordon Pask

Teaching Machines

5.1 Psychologie

1962

Johann Leo Weissgerber

Sprachwissenschaft

6.2 Languages and literature

1963

Jean-Claude Lafon

Phonation

3.5 Other medical sciences

1965

David Easton

A Political System Diagram

5.6 Political sciences

1965

David Easton

Political systems

5.6 Political sciences

1965

David Easton

Demand Flow Patterns

5.6 Political sciences

1966

Stafford Beer

Controlling Enterprises

5.1 Psychology | 6.3 Philosophy

1967

John Cunningham Lilly

Basic Effects of LSD25 on the Biocomputer

1.6 Biological sciences

1967

Walter Buckley

Collective Behavior

5.3 Sociology

1967

Erich Jantsch

Strategy for concept-oriented forecasting

5.2 Economics and business

1968

Helmar Frank

Grundlagen der „Lernmaschine“

1.1 Mathematics

1971

Harriet Zuckerman

Bewertung wissenschaftlicher Veröffentlichungen

6.3 Philosophie

1972

Alexander Yakovlevich Lerner

Control structure in an organised system

2.2 Electrical Engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering

1972

Helmut Krauch

Zielgruppenkommunikation in der Direktdemokratie

5.3 Sociology

1974

Mihajlo D. Mesarović

World modelling

2.3 Mechanical Engineering

1975

Howard T. Odum

Replacement Value of Ecosystems

1.6 Biological sciences

1977

Hermann Haken

Die Grundlagen der Synergetik

1.3 Physik

1977

John W. Kingdon

Voting

5.6 Political sciences

1978

Kenneth V. Lorimer

A learning task as a universe of discourse

5.3 Educational Sciences

1978

Hartmut Bossel

Information processing and orientation of an actor system

1.5 Earth and related environmental sciences

1978

Jose F. Silvio

The educational system and the environment

5.3 Educational Sciences

1978

Stroud Cornock

The Systems paradigm

6.4 Arts (arts, history of arts, performing arts, music)

1979

Erik Christopher Zeeman

Ideologies

1.1 Mathematics

1980

Gordon Pask

The limits of togetherness

5.1 Psychologie

1980

Eduard Pestel

Deutschland-Modell (Weltmodell)

1.1 Mathematics

1950, R. Nevitt Sanford


An abstract formulation of a personality
FOS: 5.1 Psychology
In: Adorno, Theodor W.; Frenkel-Brunswik, Elke; Levinson, Daniel J.; Sanford, R. Nevitt (1950 / 1969). The Authoritarian Personality. New York: The Norton Library. S.801.

1950 R. Nevitt Sanford
Bildunterschrift fehlt (Zitiert im Text als Figure 1 (XX))

3 . Dynamics of surface behavior and attitudes

Given these underlying trends—dependence, hostility against the father, submission, passivity and homosexuality, and fear of weakness – it is possible to offer reasonable explanations for most of Mack’s characteristic traits and attitudes. These surface trends can be understood in large part as derivations or transformations of the deep-lying needs we have discussed. Surface and depth are connected by means of well-known psychological mechanisms. An abstract formulation of Mack’s personality, in its genetic aspects, is sketched in its general outlines in Figure 1 (XX). Genetically early forces and events appear at the bottom of the chart, and the course of development is followed by reading upward, arrows indicating the directions of determination and the points at which it is applied. No attempt is made to indicate the nature of the causation in the various instances. A rough correspondence between order in the genetic sequence and degree of depth within the contemporary personality structure is assumed, the earliest reaction tendencies being regarded as those which now lie deepest within the personality.

1951, Edward Tolman


Human Behavior
FOS: 5.1 Psychologie
In: Tolman, Edward Chace (1951 / 1961). Behavior and psychological man: essays in motivation and learning. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. S. 120.

1951, Edward Tolman


Confining myself, then, from here on to psychological operational behaviorism, let me attempt to sketch in the general outlines of the latter. For, as I see it, such a psychological operationalism does no more than give a list of, and attempt to indicate the true functional interrelationship between, the actual types of experiment being done today in psychology.

Psychological operationalism presents three main theses:

It asserts a list of intervening I’s.
It asserts certain laws or functions whereby these I’s result from the S’s, P’s, H’s, T’s, and A’s, and from each other.
It asserts certain further laws or functions whereby the final behavior B results from combinations of these I’s, as well as from S’s, P’s, H’s, T’s, and A’s.

The schema on page 120 indicates my formulation of these three assertions. This schema is, of course, tentative. It will surely need revision before it can be adopted wholeheartedly. I present it, nevertheless, because I believe it to be correct in essence. I believe that even now it is a pretty fair summary of what psychology today is actually, operationally, doing.

1952, W. Ross Ashby


Adaption As Stability
FOS: 1.7 Other Natural Sciences
In: Ashby, W. Ross (1952 / 1960). Design for a brain. The origin of adaptive behavior. New York: John Wiley & Sons. S.70.

1952 Ross Ashby
Figure 5 / 13 / 1.

5/13. The second property is shown when an organism reacts to a variable with which it is not directly in contact. Suppose, for instance, that the diagram of immediate effects (S. 4/12) is that of Figure 5/13/1; the variables have been divided by the dotted line into ‚animal‘ on the right and ‚environment‘ on the left, and the animal is not in direct contact with the variable marked X. The system is assumed to be stable, i.e. to have arrived at the ‚adapted‘ condition (S. 5 /7). If disturbed, its changes will show co-ordination of part with part (S. 5 /12), and this co-ordination will hold over the whole system (S. 4/18). It follows that the behaviour of the ‚animal‘-part will be coordinated with the behaviour of X although the ‚animal‘ has no immediate contact with it. (Example in S. 8/7.) In the higher organisms, and especially in Man, the power to react correctly to something not immediately visible or tangible has been called ‚imagination‘, or ‚abstract thinking‘, or several other names whose precise meaning need not be discussed at the moment. Here we should notice that the co-ordination of the behavior of one part with that of another part not in direct contact with it is simply an elementary property of the stable system.

1961, Gordon Pask


Teaching Machines
FOS: 5.1 Psychologie
In: Pask, Gordon (1961 / 1972). An Approach to Cybernetics. London: Hutchinson Radius. S.95

Adaptive Teaching System
Fig. 21. An adaptive teaching system applicable if the skill entails welldefined perceptual atributes

Trainees learning to work a ten-key add listing machine have to translate chunks of numerical data such as ‚1278‘, ‚253467‘ (obtained, in real life, from invoices) into rapidly performed sequences of key depressions. At the outset, each chunk poses a realistic problem, and it happens that people learning this skill describe the problem in terms of more or less consistent descriptive attributes. Some of these are:
(i) Number of items in a chunk of data. (Two attributes.)
(ii) Whether the items entail horizontal runs on the keyboard (given the usual layout ‚123‘, ‚456‘, ‚789‘), or
(iii) Vertical runs like ‚141‘, ’25S‘, and ‚369‘.
(iv) Specific constraints such as ‚all items selected from the subset 2-8‘.
Hence a problem is conceived as something possessing or not possessing these attributes in varying degree and the skill is performed after the manner of an elaborate frog that deals with specified conceptual categories. We use a teaching system of the kind in Figure 21. The controller learns the effect of changing attribute values upon 0 (as before, computed from the student’s performance). Then, hilI climbing in the attribute space, it aims to maximize O. The mechanical arrangement involves an attribute filter used in reverse. A given state of the controller specifies, for example, that the data presented at this instant shall have four items selected from numerals 2-8, and a horizontal run. The ‚dice thrower‘, which supplies the requisite variety, selects some problem from the ’specified set. Now, for any state of the controller, Figure 21, is a relabelled version of Figure 6 in Chapter 3. Hence, recalling the discussion, this teaching machine presents the student with a suitably adapted sequence of models of the environment he must eventually deal with.

1962, Johann Leo Weissgerber


Sprachwissenschaft
FOS: 6.2 Languages and literature
In: Weisgerber, Johann Leo (1962). Grundformen sprachlicher Weltgestaltung. Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Forschung des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Geisteswissenschaften 87. Sitzung am 21. März 1962 in Düsseldorf. Heft 105. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien. S. 28.

1962, Johann Leo Weisgerber
Die vier Schauplätze des Wortens der Welt

Von diesem Ansatz aus ließe sich schematisch ein Gegenüber von Wirklichkeit und Welt ableiten, das allerdings weniger als Gegensatz zu verstehen ist, sondern viel eher als Eingebettetsein menschlich gelebter Welt in übergreifende Wirklichkeit. Insbesondere wäre zu beachten, daß Welt und Wirklichkeit weder einfach als Menschliches und Außermenschliches zu interpretieren noch durch unveränderliche Schranken voneinander getrennt zu denken sind. Menschlich gelebte Welt wird aus der Gesamtheit menschlicher Sinnes- und Geisteskräfte heraus gestaltet. Dabei kann sowohl innermenschliche Welt ausgebaut wie außermenschliche Wirklichkeit anverwandelt, in menschliche Welt übergeführt, wie Menschliches in der Ungewußtheit der Wirklichkeit belassen werden. Sieht man menschlich gelebte Welt unter diesen Bedingungen, so ist ihr Aufbau von allen menschlichen Kräften getragen und grundsätzlich als eine Ganzheit anzusehen. Trotzdem wird man die spezifischen Wirkungsweisen einzelner dieser Kräfte zu analysieren suchen. In sinnvoller Analogie zu den spezifischen Anverwandlungsformen der einzelnen körperlichen Sinne (Auge, Ohr usw.) wird man auch nach den spezifischen Wirkungsweisen einzelner geistiger Kräfte fragen.

Auf die Sprachkraft angewandt, würde sich das so darstellen: Angesichts der charakteristischen Wirkungsform der Sprachkraft (deutliche Erkennbarkeit der sprachlichen Zugriffe) ist es gerechtfertigt, dem spezifischen Einschlag der Sprache im Aufbau menschlicher Welt nachzugehen. Es scheint, daß man grundsätzlich mit vier Grundformen möglicher sprachlicher Wirkungsweise rechnen kann, mit „vier Schauplätzen des Wortens der Welt“. Alles was die Sprachkraft erarbeiten kann, zeigt den Grundcharakter von Welt: dem menschlichen Bewußtsein zugängliche, den menschlichen Möglichkeiten angemessene Aufbauelemente gelebter Welt. Die Rede von einer Sprachwelt zeigt hier ihren vollen Sinn: der Inbegriff aller die sprachliche Auseinandersetzung des Menschen mit seiner Lebenswirklichkeit vollziehenden Zugriffe.

Beim Aufbau menschlicher Sprachwelt sind die vier Grundfälle denkbar:

I. Die Sprachkraft tritt in unmittelbare Wechselwirkung mit der Wirklichkeit.
II. Die Sprachkraft trifft auf bereits durch andere menschliche Sinnes- und Geisteskräfte in menschliche Welt übergeführte Wirklichkeit.
III. Die Sprachkraft trifft auf die Entfaltungsformen innermenschlicher Welt aus außersprachlichen menschlichen Kräften.
IV: Die Sprachkraft schafft gemäß ihrem eigenen Gesetz geistige Sprachwelt.

Bei aller Schematisierung werden hier vier verschiedene Bedingungskomplexe deutlich, aus denen in jeweils eigener Weise Sprachwelt erwächst. In der Ganzheit einer bestehenden Sprache müßten sie alle vier nachweisbar sein und umgekehrt müßten alle sprachlichen Zugriffe (in einfacher oder auch verwickelter Form) mit ihnen in Verbindung stehen. Es muß also im Konkreten aufgesucht werden, ob wir damit vier Grundsituationen des Wortens der Welt aufgedeckt haben und ob von da aus die einzelnen Sprachphänomene in ihrer Leistung, in der Tragweite ihres Zugriffs beurteilt werden können.

1963, Jean-Claude Lafon


Phonation
FOS: 3.5 Other medical sciences
In: Lafon, J.-C. (1963). Intelligibilité Du Mot, Fonction De Celle Du Phonème. In: Moles, A.A. & Vallancien, B. (1963). Communications et langages. Paris: Gauthier-Villars. S.196.

1963, Jean-Claude Lafon
Fig. 5.

Ce diagramme résume, d’après Küpfmüller, les différents éléments du processus de phonation et d’audition dans un modèle schématique. On voit, dans la chaîne principale, le message s’écouler depuis la conscience jusqu’à la radiation d’ondes sonores qui sont captées par la chaîne auditive, intégrées séparément sous forme d’objets sonores avec un certain délai, puis proposées à la perception comme un contrôle permanent du déroulement du processus phonatoire. II existe normalement une connection automatique entre les centres auditifs et les organes de la parole.

1965, David Easton


A Political System Diagram
FOS: 5.6 Political sciences
In: Easton, David (1965). A systems analysis of political life. New York, London, Sydney: John Wiley & Sons. S.30.

1965 David Easton
Diagram 1 A Dynamic Response Model Of A Political System

In interpreting the diagram, we begin with the fact that it shows a political system surrounded by the two classes of environments that together form its total environment. The communications of the many events that occur here are represented by the solid lines connecting the environments with the political system. The arrowheads on the lines show the direction of flow into the system. But rather than attempting to discuss each disturbance in the environment uniquely or even in selected groups or classes of types, I use as an indicator of the impact that they have on the system, the way in which they shape two special kinds of inputs into the system, demands and support. This is why the effects from the environment are shown to flow into the box labelled „inputs“. We must remember, however, that even though the desire for simplicity in presentation does not permit us to show it on the diagram, events occurring within a system may also have some share in influencing the nature of the inputs. As is apparent, the inputs provide what we may call the raw materials on which the system acts so as to produce something we are calling outputs. The way in which this is done will be described as a massive conversion process cavalierly represented on the diagram by the serpentine line within the political system. The conversion processes move toward the authorities since it is toward them that the demands are initially directed. As we shall see, demands spark the basic activities of a political system. By virtue of their status in all systems, authorities have special responsibilities for converting demands into outputs.

1965, David Easton


Political systems
FOS: 5.6 Political sciences
In: Easton, David (1965). A systems analysis of political life. New York, London, Sydney: John Wiley & Sons. S.374.

1965 David Easton
Diagram 5 Multiple Feedback Loops Of A Political System

A political system does not differ from other social systems in this respect. Especially in large scale systems, we can expect, to find unlimited numbers and varieties of feedback loops. Diagram 5 depicts the flow of outputs and of inputs of support for a political system. Six basic types of loops are identified. These are only illustrative; they are by no means exhaustive. They could be quickly multiplied by connecting any two actors in the system wherever it appears plausible that mutual interaction would occur, based at least upon information feedback. The fact is that if we find any two subsystems within a political system or any subsystems within a system and outside a system that are linked together in such a way first, that the outputs of one become the inputs of the other and second, that thereby some effort at regulation of the relationship may take place, we can say that they are joined by feedback ties. Feedback is the dynamic aspect of this kind of coupling between systems or subsystems. We can see this clearly represented in the diagram. Loop I indicates that among the producers of the inputs of demands and support, such a linkage may occur. One member (or group of members) in a system may express his political views to another; the other may respond critically or otherwise; in the light of the response, the first member may change his opinions or behavior. The illustration does not add much to an understanding of the relationship when stated so simply, without including the properties that a dynamic analysis will later bring out as associated with the feedback processes. I point to it only to show that there is a type of feedback process confined exclusively to the input sector of the system. Loop II shows a loop that has sprung up between one of these two members who is receiving some benefits, let us say, from an interest group, as indicated by the broken line and its direction, and who returns support as his response. The shading on all lines may be ignored for the moment. Although the diagram cannot show this, the behavior of the interest group could be influenced and controlled in the next round by this return of support and so on in a mutually interactive process. Loop III describes the path that feedback follows between the same interest group and a political party. In return, presumably for benefits received, the interest group in its turn is provided with support by the party; the converse is usually equally true. Loop IV is another boundary loop, but this time between the party previously mentioned and a unit that produces outputs for the system as a whole, let us say some part of the administrative services. This unit may itself be linked in a feedback process with the executive of the political system. In this event, as indicated by Loop V, the feedback of information about support is confined to the producers of outputs. Finally, through the systemic feedback loop,— numbered VI — which is one of many possible loops, the outputs of the executive flow back to influence the behavior of the individual (or group) with whom we first began, a producer of inputs of support and demands. His (or its) reaction to these outputs, let us assume, are communicated directly back to the executive as shown by the cross-barred line of alternate dots and dashes. But it could just as easily have been diagramed as passing through several intermediary demand-collecting and, as we shall see, support-collecting agencies, represented here by interest groups, parties, or mass media. One such alternative path is indicated by the shaded line flowing from the producer of the inputs through the interest group, party, and administrative agency to the executive.

1965, David Easton


Demand Flow Patterns
FOS: 5.6 Political sciences
In: Easton, David (1965). A systems analysis of political life. New York, London, Sydney: John Wiley & Sons. S.74.

1965, David Easton III
Diagram 3 Types Of Demand Flow Patterns

To help in understanding the processes at work and their related variable structures, Diagram 3 depicts the logical alternatives with regard to flow patterns of demands in any system, regardless of type, time and place. Of necessity, the diagram presents a crude and highly oversimplified approximation of the possible paths taken by demands as they move through the system. Nevertheless, using it as a point of departure, the box stands for the political system; and outside it is the total environment, intra-societal and extra-societal. In the environ­ment, the general, nonpolitical opinions, preferences, interests, ideolo­gies and similar ideas and attitudes, what we shall be calling wants, are formed. As members of society express these wants in the form of expectations or desires that binding decisions should be taken with respect to them, they are by definition converted into demands and have become part of the political processes of that society. The conver­sion of wants takes place at the boundary and is identified by the shaded arrows.

Inside the box the various solid arrow lines represent pathways or channels along which demands are borne as they move from their first emergence on the scene to their crystallization, in whole part or part, into binding decisions and implementing actions. But by virtue of their flow through the network of channels, demands undergo a number of preparatory or pre-processing phases through which they become modified in content or reduced in numbers. As a result of these processes each persisting system is able to guarantee that by the time the de­mands reach the areas where binding decisions are made and imple­mented, there is a reasonable chance that those who are responsible for these final stages will be able to cope with what might otherwise have been an overwhelming welter of time-consuming.demands. The diagram traces five logically possible channels along which a want may travel after it has been converted to a demand. These flow paths are labeled S to W. Although they are derived logically, it also turns out that phenomenally all these patterns appear, if not together in the same system, at least individually or in various combinations in one or another system. Through them the inflow and processing of demands are regulated.

1966, Stafford Beer


Controlling Enterprises
FOS: 5.1 Psychology | 6.3 Philosophy
In: Beer, Stafford (1966 / 1971). Decision And Control. The meaning of Operational Research and Management Cybernetics. London, New York. Sydney, Toronto: John Wiley & Sons. S.392.

1966 Stafford Beer S.392
Figure 48.

Inevitably, an account of how enterprises are to be controlled is an extraordinarily complex business. This is the reason why Figure 48, which reduces the matter to its absolute essentials, is none the less complicated and difficult to study. However, if all that has gone before has been well comprehended, the task is not insupportable. As usual, the study begins with a (or in this case, rather, the) world situation. For the enterprise, this world situation may be understood in the form of two fairly well contra-distinguished aspects. The first is the internal world situation, which is the one that the enterprise is; the second is the external world of the enterprise environment: that part of nature which has a direct bearing on the internal state. As has been recognized before, these two systems are not absolutely separable; they do not have absolutely clear-cut boundaries. One of the reasons for the problem of separability is that each is influenced by a set of coenetic variables to be found in the world at large. All this is illustrated at the top of the diagram, where it will be seen that a set of preferred states is marked off (as a circle) from the totality of states represented by the phase space. In these two small pictures, as in those others which follow, the present state is 􀀜hown within a preferred set of states. To go back to the drawing: the input from the set of coenetic variables is shown helping to determine this happy state of affairs. Each of these world situations may be observed to be amplifying variety. This plethora of information is seen cascading from the side of each picture. As we know, the first problem of control is to become aware of this variety, and in each case data is shown cascading on to the lid of a black box. But before attending to its subsequent use, it will be noted that the internal and the external world situations are depicted as interacting through a self-vetoing homeostat (H1). This is no more than a formalization of the actual state of affairs, for whatever the manage­ment does or fails to do about controlling the situation, it will in some sense control itself through the interactions which its two halves neces­sarily have. Management, however, will wish to influence this interim interaction for motives of its own, and the model now continues by saying what is to happen.

1967, John Cunningham Lilly


Basic Effects of LSD25 on the Biocomputer
FOS: 1.6 Biological sciences
In: Lilly, John C. (1967 / 1974). The Human Biocomputer · Theory and Experiments. London: Abacus. S.120.

1967 John C. Lilly
Figure 9 Primary State Induced by Hipnosis, LSD, Etc.

Methatheoretical considerations

In general there are two opposing and different schools of thought on the basic origins of systems of thought or systems of mathematics. In a simplified way these two extreme positions can be summarized as follows:

1. In the first position one makes the metatheoretical assumption that a given system of thinking is based upon irreducible postulates — the basic beliefs of the systems. All consequences and all manipulations of the thinking machine are then merely elaborations of, combinations of, these assumptions operating upon data derived from the mind and / or from the external world. This is called the formalistic school. This school assumes that one can, with sufficiently sophisticated methods, find those postulates which are motivating and directing a given mind in its operations. A further metatheoretical assumption is that once one finds this set of postulates that then one can account for all of the operations of that mind. (Whitehead and Russell, 1927; Carnap, 194246; Tarski, 1946.)
2. The opposing school at the opposite end of a spectrum of schools, as it were, makes the metatheoretical assumption that thinking systems arise from intuitive, essentially unknowable, substrates of mental operations (Hilbert, 1950). This school states that new kinds of thinking are created from unknown sources. Further, one is not able to arrive at all of the basic assumptions on which systems of thinking operate. Many of the assumptions from this point of view must be forever hidden from the thinker. Thus in this view the origins of thinking are wide open. With this metatheoretical assumption one can then conceive of the existence in the future of presently inconceivable systems of thought.
3. There is an intermediate position between these two extremes in which one assumes the existence of both kinds and that each of these two extremes has something to offer. Thus one can select kinds of thinking which are subject to formalistic analysis and formalistic synthesis based upon basic beliefs. But this does not include all thinking. Some kinds continue to be based in unknown areas, sources, and methods. Metatheoretical selection is being done by selection of the formal kind of thinking from a large universe of other possibilities. This position does not state that the origins of the basic beliefs are completely specifiable. However, once some related basic beliefs are found to exist, a limited system of rules of combination of the basic beliefs giving internally consistent logical results can be devised for limited use of that system. This organization into a limited integral system of thinking and the selection of those basic beliefs which naturally fit into such systems of thinking, is a way of dividing off this territory.

Basic Effects of LSD25 on the Biocomputer

Growth-Hypothesis

1. One major biological effect of LSD25 may be a selective effect on growth patterns in the CNS. Some parts of the local growth patterns, i.e., the systems which are selectively active during the LSD25 state.
2. For these postulated growth effects there is an optimal concentration of the substance in the brain. With less concentration than the optimal there is merely an irritating stimulation of the CNS (below the levels of awareness). At the optimal concentration (in the nontolerant state) the phenomena of the LSD25 state occur. This is a phase of initiation of new growth in the CNS. [This phase is a state of mind analogous to that presumed to exist in the very young human (possibly beginning in the fetus or embryo).]
3. If additional material is administered, prolongation of this phase can be achieved within certain limits. With the maintenance of the optimal concentration of substance, this phase is prolonged (hours) until tolerance develops.
4. The phase of developed tolerance is thought to be (in addition to other things) the phase of the completion of the fast new growth. Most of the new biochemical and neurological connections are completed.
5. If continuous maintenance of optimal concentration for many hours (and ? days) after this initial phase is then achieved, growth may continue slowly.
6. The growth is not thought to be confined to the central nervous system. The autonomic nervous system may grow also.
7. If the optimal concentration is exceeded, the substance excites a „stress syndrome“ (i.e., adrenal-vascular-G.l. tract, etc.). (This syndrome is separate from the affective results of the LSD25 state which in certain individuals can cause a stress syndrome. I am not speaking of such individuals. I am speaking of more sophisticated observers who have been through the necessary and sufficient experiences to be able avoid a stress syndrome in the LSD25 state.)
8. At concentrations above the optimal there can be a reversal of the beneficial effects in the induced stress syndrome. Antigrowth factors are stimulated. Homeostasis is thus assured in the organism. A similar phenomenon can be seen with negative programming during the LSD25 experience. Reversal of growth may be programmed in by the selfprogrammer, unconscious metaprograms, or by the outside therapist or other persons.
9. At concentrations above optimal the resulting stress syndrome is programmed into the autonomic nervous system and continues (beyond the time of the presence of the substance) to repeat itself until reprogrammed out days or weeks later.
10. At levels above optimal, the selfmetaprogram loses energy and circuitry to autonomous programs; the ego disappears at very high levels.

This complex series of relations shows the delicate nature of the best state for remetaprogramming and of remetaprogramming itself. Until sophisticated handling (of these substances, the selfmetaprogram, the person, the setting, the preparation, etc.) can be achieved, careful voluntary education of professional personnel should be done, and done carefully with insight. Selection of persons for training must be diplomatic and tactful; it is a strategy to be carried out cooperatively without publicity. Candor and honesty at deep levels is a prime requisite.

1967, Walter Buckley


Collective Behavior
FOS: 5.3 Sociology
In: Buckley, Walter F. (1967). Sociology and Modern Systems Theory. Englewood Hills, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. S.138.

1967, Walter F. Buckley
FIGURE 5-1 Simplified Systemic View of the "Collective Behavior" Approach to a Theory of Institutionalization

What is required, in particular, is to make more explicit the recog­nition that institutionalization is an ongoing, circular, systemic process, and not an open-ended chain of events with clear-cut antecedents and consequences. From a systems view, we might see it as a feedback, or pseudo-feedback, process that contains both negative (stabilizing or rigidi­fying) elements and positive (structure-elaborating, or increasingly dis­organizing) features. (See Figure 5-1) As some of the newer views are beginning to suggest, such closure is essential for a fully dynamic model of the sociocultural system. In one way or another, the point is being made that institutional structures help to create and recreate themselves in an ongoing developmental process. The modern systems perspective is providing conceptual tools that are taking the mysticism out of the no­tions of „immanent change“ and the harboring of „seeds“ of an institu­tion’s own destruction–or construction. Whether directly inspired by the modem perspective or not, current theory is moving in similar or compatible directions.

1967, Erich Jantsch


Strategy for concept-oriented forecasting
FOS: 5.2 Economics and business
In: Jantsch, Erich (1967). Technological Forecasting in Perspective. Paris: OECD Publications. S.234.

1967 Erich Jantsch
McCrory's example of a typical flow chart illustrates his idea

The chart is almost self-explanatory: starting from a corporate objective, and keeping an ‚ideal‘ concept in mind, alternative concepts A … N are postulated and relevant disciplinary areas are identified. The state of the art which is required in these areas to realise a concept is assessed, and time-dependent probability distributions for the attainment of the state of the art are estimated. Finally. These state-of-the-art probability distribu­tions are combined into a forecast of a specific concept attainability in terms of a probability range over time. An important part of this approach is the identification of critical paths (disciplinary areas, functional sub-systems, etc.). For this task, McCrory proposes a relevance tree approach ranging from the corporate objective through alternative concepts down to sub-systems and their predominant parameters-at which point an intuitive morphological approach takes over to identify alternative sets of parameters that form alternative sub-systems.

1968, Helmar Frank


Grundlagen der „Lernmaschine“
FOS: 1.1 Mathematics
In: Frank, Helmar (1968). Wissenschaftstheoretische und organisationskybernetische Aspekte der kybernetischen Pädagogik. Evangelische Theologie, Vol. 28 (Issue 7). S. 379.

1968, Helmar Frank
1 Schema des didaktischen Informationsumsatzes und seiner Einbettung in den sozialkulturellen Rahmen

Es wurde schon erwähnt, daß in einem Teil dieser pädagogischen Variablen Information über die anderen steckt. Genauer: Sind einige pädagogische Variablen festgelegt, dann können die anderen nicht mehr ganz beliebig festgelegt werden. Nicht jede Festlegung von L, M, P, S, Ζ und Λ ist also eine Beschreibung einer möglichen Lehrsituation. Insbesondere kann gefragt werden, welche Lehralgorithmen einen gegebenen Lehrstoff mit einem gegebenen Medium einem gegebenen Adressaten in einer gegebenen soziokulturellen Umwelt mit einer geforderten Gründlichkeit zu vermitteln gestatten. Die Gesamtheit der Fragestellungen, Begriffe und Methoden, die entstehen, eingeführt und angewandt werden, wenn ein Teil der pädagogischen Variablen festgelegt ist und eine damit verträgliche Festlegung der übrigen gesucht wird, nennen wir Didaktik. Der didaktische Prozeß ist also die Vorbereitung des Lehrprozesses. Beide zusammen bilden den Begriff des didaktischen Informationsumsatzes. — Ausdrücklich sei darauf hingewiesen, daß unter den sechs Komponenten des didaktischen Informationsumsatzes im allgemeinen n i c h t , wie in Paul Heimanns (1962) Didaktik des Grundschulunterrichts, den Variablen S und Ρ eine Sonderstellung zukommt, insofern diese sich etwa einer Entscheidung entzögen und grundsätzlich als Bedingungen der Entscheidung über die anderen Variablen berücksichtigt werden müßten. Das gilt außerhalb der Grundschuldidaktik nahezu nirgends, insbesondere nicht in der Industriedidaktik. Hier sind Soziostruktur und Psychostruktur nicht unveränderlich vorgegeben: ein Managementtraining kann in ein entlegenes Bergdorf verlagert, und zum Kurs nur freigestellt werden, wer die erforderliche Lernfähigkeit und Vorkenntnis mitbringt. Keineswegs ist also die moderne Industriepädagogik vorrangig am Menschen und seiner Umwelt orientiert; beide sind vielmehr beliebig auswechselbar, soweit dadurch ein für das Unternehmen günstiger didaktischer Informationsumsatz erreicht werden kann.
Es kann jedoch für die Gesamtgesellschaft (oder auch schon für ein Einzelunternehmen) Gründe geben, manchmal eine in bestimmter Richtung erfolgende Veränderung des Lernzustandes a l l e r Glieder der Gesellschaft zu fordern und nicht nur der Ausbildung neu benötigter Spezialisten jeweils eine Vorsortierung passender Adressaten vorauszuschicken. Der didaktische Informationsumsatz wird nämlich vom umgreifenden soziotechnischen System an drei Stellen beeinflußt: Die Normen und Verhaltensformen der Gesellschaft (des soziotechnischen Systems) bedingen a) die Variable Ζ und b) die Variable S; außerdem ist c) die Variable L vom jeweiligen Stand von Kunst, Wissenschaft und Technik abhängig. Diese Randbedingungen sind aber nicht unveränderlich sondern ihrerseits eine Folge der in der Vergangenheit erfolgten oder unterlassenen pädagogischen Einwirkungen auf die Gesamtheit der Adressaten (sowie eine Folge der unmittelbaren Einflüsse der Pädagogen).
Bild 1 faßt die bisherigen Überlegungen für den Fall einer didaktischen Instanz zusammen, die Λ zur einzigen abhängigen Veränderlichen macht. An diesem Bilde orientieren wir uns, wenn wir nunmehr einen systematischen Aufbau der Pädagogik als „Wissenschaft in ihrem idealen Endzustand“ entwerfen.

1971, Harriet Zuckerman


Bewertung wissenschaftlicher Veröffentlichungen
FOS: 6.3 Philosophie
In: Zuckerman, Harriet & Merton, Robert K. (1971). Patterns of evaluation in science: Institutionalisation, structure and functions of the referee system. London: Macmillan.

Evaluation Of Manuscripts with Single Authors By Rank of Author (The Physical Review, 1948-1956)
Chart I: Evaluation Of Manuscripts with Single Authors By Rank of Author (The Physical Review, 1948-1956)

Since the anonymity of authors cannot be uniformly assured, it would require a strict experimental design to find out decisively whether papers of the same scientific quality are assessed differently by referees according to the status of authors. Both ethics and practicality rule out the draconian experiment in which matched samples of referees, all unknowing, would independently judge the same manuscripts variously ascribed to physicists of different rank, in order to determine the extent of status-linked evaluations. Nor can we approximate the intent of that experimental design by adopting the number of citations to published papers as measures of quality to see whether papers rejected by The Physical Review but published elsewhere are of the same quality as those accepted by that journal. At best, we can bring together data which provide cumulative intimations of the extent to which judgements by editors and referees relate to the status of authors. We begin by examining the successive disposition of manuscripts as this is summarised in the abbreviated flow chart of the refereeing process (Chart I).

1972, Alexander Yakovlevich Lerner


Control structure in an organised system
FOS: 2.2 Electrical Engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering
In: Lerner, A.Ya. (1972). Fundamentals of Cybernetics. New York: A Plenum / Rosetta Edition. S.261.

1972, A. Ya. Lerner
Fig. 17.3. Example of a possible structure of a machine system for controlling a plant

The enumerated difficulties of realising a machine system of control can be completely overcome, provided we do not try to build an ideal system capable in any situation of finding instantaneously and implementing a strictly optimal control. In reality we do not require a system to be optimal but to be satisfactory, which will at least perform a control no worse than man would. The potentialities of man as regards receiving and processing information are limited, and even the most talented leader takes decisions on the basis of a relatively small number of factors and very rough forecasts, and spends a relatively long time in making decisions. This means that he cannot obtain a strictly optimal control. Nevertheless, plants and other complex organised systems controlled by man exist, and many of them develop successfully. This means that machine control systems may also prove viable if they perform the control functions, if not ideally, at least no worse than human beings do.

One possible structure of a machine system for controlling a plant is given in Fig. 17.3. This system is built up of learning, homomorphous (simplified) models of plants and media of various orders. The simplest and most quickly changing models of the first rank are intended for processing relatively small flows of information and to provide, quickly, control signals calculated to operate over short time intervals. The models of the second rank take into consideration more data, and calculate the control actions over a longer period of time. The models of the higher ranks work still more slowly but produce control actions for even longer periods. The models of the plant and of the medium of all ranks interact and generate the control signals of the group A, intended for keeping the plant in order, and the group B, for accomplishing its functions with respect to the medium.

In order that models change in accordance with changes in the properties and characteristics of the plant and the medium, they must be made adaptive, and for this purpose principles can be used which were described in Chapter 11. The ‚initiative‘ of a machine system, exemplified by a sufficiently large variety of possible solutions, can be achieved by introducing a moderate number of random changes from a generator of random signals.

The same principle can be applied for controlling not only the production process of a plant but also other complicated artificially organised systems which must function in a stable way under changing conditions.

Such systems may operate autonomously over a certain period of time which can be longer, the greater the number of ranks in the control hierarchy. However, from time to time the operation of the system has to be corrected by people who are responsible for ensuring that the system performs in a manner useful to society.

1972, Helmut Krauch


Zielgruppenkommunikation in der Direktdemokratie
FOS: 5.3 Sociology
In: Krauch, Helmut (1972). Die Computer-Demokratie · Hilft uns die Technik entscheiden? München: Goldmann Politik + Zeitgeschehen. S. 73.

1972, Helmut Krauch
Ablauf eines ORAKELS.

In einem Experiment wurde 1967 an der Universität von Kalifornien in Berkeley ein Staatswesen der Zukunft in eine Direkt-Demokratie simuliert. Politiker und Fachleute diskutierten Streitprobleme, und die Staatsbürger schauten dabei nicht nur zu, sondern gaben fortlaufend Bewertungen ab, die von einem Computer blitzschnell ausgewertet und dargestellt wurden. Die politische Diskussion sollte dadurch entsprechend den alten demokratischen Idealen wieder direkt ins Volk hineingetragen werden. Eine Rundfunkstation half im Frühjahr 1967, dieses Konzept öffentlich zu experimentieren. Schließlich interessierte sich auch das Deutsche Fernsehen dafür, filmte den Versuchsaufbau und beriet über Möglichkeiten, ein solches Experiment auch einmal im Deutschen Fernsehen zu senden.
Dieses System wurde ORAKEL getauft, weil mit seiner Hilfe groBe Massen von Staatsbürgern gemeinsam planen und Wege in die Zukunft eröffnen können.

ORAKEL besteht aus einem
— Organisierten Konflikt, einer
— Repräsentativen Auswahl von Bürgern, die sich um die
— Artikulation
— Kritischer
— Entwicklungs-
— Lücken

bemühen. ORAKEL bedeutet Organisierte Repräsentative Artikulation Kritischer Entwicklungs-Lücken. Der organisierte Konflikt ist nicht sehr verschieden von einer hitzigen Debatte im Parlament, die man im Fernsehen verfolgen kann. Auch im Parlament geht es zwar nicht immer, aber doch häufig um ge­sellschaftlich und politisch heiBe Themen. Nur ist ganz offen­sichtlich, daß dabei manche Bevölkerungsteile schlecht oder gar nicht vertreten sind, andere überstark. Deswegen wird bei ORAKEL dieser Konflikt so organisiert, daß daran Vertreter aller direkt oder indirekt betroffenen Gesellschaftsgruppen be­teiligt sind, die in ihrem Bereich und zur Vertretung ihrer Interessen über ausreichenden Sachverstand und Fachwissen verfügen. Dabei ist zu beachten, daß der nötige Sachverstand eben nicht nur durch langjähriges Studium, sondern insbesondere durch Praxis, durch Erfahrung und Einsicht erworben werden kann. Dieser Personenkreis, der sich aus Politikern, Wissenschaftlern, Vertretern der Interessengruppen und nichtorganisierten Betroffenen zusammensetzt, beginnt zu streiten und versucht dabei, die gegensätzlichen Standpunkte möglichst deutlich darzustellen; dazu muß sich jeder gut vorbereiten. Er braucht nicht nur das notwendige Wissen, sondern auch Klarheit über die von ihm vertretene Interessenlage. Von vielen Gruppendiskussionen im Fernsehen unterscheidet sich der organisierte Konflikt durch seine Schärfe, die durchaus polemisch sein kann, jedoch nicht darauf gerichtet ist, den anderen persönlich abzuwerten, sondern seine interessengebundenen Weltanschauungen ans Licht zu bringen.

1974, Mihajlo D. Mesarović


World modelling
FOS: 2.3 Mechanical Engineering
In: Mesarović, Mihajlo & Pestel, Eduard (1974). Mankind at the turning point. The Second Report to The Club of Rome. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc. / Readers Digest Press. S. 44-45.

1974, Mihajlo Mesarovic and Eduard Prestel
Brief on World System Computer Model

The objective of this rather complicated looking diagram is to give an impression for the technically minded reader as to how the computer model is structured and also to provide a glimpse of its real complexity. The reader not interested in the model per se can safely skip this brief without losing the continuity of the report.
The model has 10 regions (Figure A) each represented on six different strata (Figure B). The interdependence of all regional models is expressed through appropriate intercon­nections and exchange mechanisms. For some strata several representations with different degrees of resolution, i.e., dif­ferent amounts of detail, are used. For instance, on the eco­nomic stratum (Figure C) there is a regional macro economic model given in terms of gross regional product, GRP, and major expenditure components: consumption, investment, gov­ernment expenditure, etc., and also a micro economic model which specifies the economic output and expenditure com­ponents in terms of nine production sectors.
An illustration of how different strata are integrated into an overall world system model is shown in Figure D which presents the interconnections between three submodels — population, economics and agricultural production — for the purpose of food supply analysis. Each of these submodels is quite complicated in itself and only some components and variables of key importance for the interconnections are shown in the figure.
The individuals stratum model determines deficiency in diet for individuals (DD) on the basis of population level (POP), the food diet needs (FDN), and food available given in terms of dietary components; protein (PT), animal protein (PTA), calories (CAL) and fats (FT).

The population model determines the population (POP) in various age groups and labor available for agriculture (LA) and non-agriculture (LNA). The population change is influenced by diet deficiency.
For the sake of simplicity only a portion of the economic model dealing with the production functions is shown in the figure and in terms of only two sectors: agriculture and non-agriculture. The production function for the non-agricultural sector is given in purely economic terms, as the so-called Cobb-Douglas type function, with the non-agricultural labor and capital as the inputs (LNA and KNA) and the level of production of the sector (YNA), as the output respectively.
The production function for the agricultural sector, however, is represented in physical terms on the technological stratum because of interest in the assessment of alternative technologies of food production. It has two basic parts: food production and land development. The main inputs come from the rest of the economic model, namely, investment in land development (LI), investment in agricultural production (IAP), allocation of economic output for technical inputs to agriculture — fertilizer, seeds, etc. — (YAP), available capital (KA) and labor (LA). There are two basic outputs: arable land available (LD), and the food produced expressed in terms of grain (GR), non-grain (NG), livestock (LV) and fish (FS). The level of food import (FM) is determined by the economic output allocated for food import (MAF), food available for world trade (WFT) and world food prices (WFP). The total available food in the region is then analyzed in terms of basic diet components and fed back to the individual stratum model. Finally, the economic value of the regional agricultural output (YA) is obtained from the physical quantities produced and the pricing mechanisms. The sum of outputs of all production sectors gives the total economic output, i.e., the gross regional product. (Y).
To appreciate the complexity of the model it should be noted not only that each of the boxes In the diagram, e.g., „population model,“ is in itself a complicated model but also that an analogous structure is given for all regions and that other models, such as energy, are also interrelated in a similar fashion.

1975, Howard T. Odum


Replacement Value of Ecosystems
FOS: 1.6 Biological sciences
In: Odum, Howard T. (1971). Environment, power, and society. New York, Chichester: Wiley-Interscience. S.297.

1971 Howard T Odum
Figure 10-8

Diagram illustrating some of the work done by both nature and man’s economic system in developing recreational values for man from natural ecosystems. Numbers are for the complex of marine bays near Corpus Christi, Texas with an area of 228,480 acres. Economic activity was evaluated by Anderson [1] with recreation, tourism, and fishing $166/ (acre) (year) and oil, gas, shell, cooling waters, and savings on shipping $203/ (acre) (year). Using $10,000 kcal/dollars work equivalents were calculated. Energy contributions of personal activity by 13,914 visitors per day was converted using 3000 kcal/ (person) (day). Management by state and federal agencies was estimated as $1 million annually.

1977, Hermann Haken


Die Grundlagen der Synergetik
FOS: 1.3 Physik
In: Haken, Hermann (1977 / 1978). Synergetics An Introduction Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions and Self-Organization in Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer Verlag. S.16.


Table 1.1

We will discover how to find order parameters, how they „slave“ subsystems, and how to obtain equations for order parameters. This chapter includes methods of treating continuously extended media. We will also discuss the fundamental role of fluctuations in self-organizing systems. Chapters 8 to 10 are devoted to a detailed treatment of selected examples from physics, chemistry, and biology. The logical connection between the different chapters is exhibited in Table 1.1. In the course of this book it will transpire that seemingly quite different systems behave in a completely analogous manner. This behavior is governed by a few fundamental principles. On the other hand, admittedly, we are searching for such analogies which show up in the essential gross features of our systems. When each system is analyzed in more and more detail down to the subsystems, quite naturally more and more differences between these systems may show up.

1977, John W. Kingdon


Voting
FOS: 5.6 Political sciences
In: Kingdon, John W. (1977). Models of Legislative Voting. The Journal of Politics, Vol. 39, No. 3 (Aug., 1977), S.575.

1977, John W. Kingdon
Figure 1 An integrative Model of legislative voting decisions

„We are now in a position to present a model which attempts to integrate the various models in a fashion which incorporates the features just discussed. That model is displayed in Figure 1. The first two steps are the same as the first two in the consensus mode of decision, which I have presented elsewhere. If there is no controversy in the environment at all, the congressman’s choice is simple: he votes with that environment and is done with it. On many bills, for instance, a unified committee reports the bill and nobody opposes the committee position in any particular. If there is some controversy, he subsets the environment, considering only the actors which are most critical to him-his own constituency, his party leadership, his trusted associates in the House, his own policy attitude, etc. – which I call the „field of forces“ which bear on his decision. If there is no conflict among those actors, he votes with his field. I assume, as a legislator does, that if there appears to be no consideration which would prompt him to vote in a way different from that toward which he is impelled by every factor in his field of vision, then there is no reason to think twice. And as I have argued above, this is a beginning to an integrative model which is common to a number of the previous works on legislative voting.

If there is some conflict among the congressman’s relevant actors, he then proceeds to consider his goals, which I conceive for the purposes of this paper as being the three discussed above-constituency, intra-Washington influence, and public policy. But a goal is not brought to bear on the decision if it seems unimportant to him on this issue. It must pass what I have labelled a critical threshold of importance in order to be evoked and relevant to the decision. For example, a congressman’s constituency may have a vague and largely unarticulated opposition to foreign aid. In that case, he would say that there was a constituency opinion on the issue, but that it was not intense enough to bother taking account of. The same could apply to the other goals. In the next section of this paper, I present some operationalizations of these thresholds and use them to deal with data on voting decisions. If none of the goals is important enough to the congressman in the given decision to be relevant, he then proceeds to follow trusted colleagues within the House. He chooses colleagues who are on the committee that considered the bill and who agree with him in general philosophical, policy terms.22 If one or more goals are important enough, he asks if there is conflict among the goals which have been evoked. If there is none, the choice is then clear: to vote with the evoked goal or goals (Step Cl). It could be in this case that only one of them is relevant to the decision, or that two or even all three are, but that they all point him in the same direction. For example, it could be that the policy goal on a given issue is the only one which passes its critical threshold, and the other two, while either opposed to, favorable to, or neutral concerning his conception of good public policy, are not in any event important enough to him on that issue to be potentially controlling. He votes in that case according to his conception of good public policy. As the model specifies, part of this decision may well be picking cues within the House to reinforce his policy goal, as a means to that end, in the fashion discussed above. Other examples of no conflict among evoked goals could be given, but this one will perhaps suffice.

If there is some conflict among the goals which the legislator considers relevant to his decision, he proceeds implicitly to some decision rules which help him sort out the conflicts and make a satisfactory choice. It might be helpful at this point in the argument to present all the logically possible combinations of conflict among the three goals, which is done in Table 1. In the first column, the possible combinations are listed, and the second and third columns contain the outcomes which the model would predict for each of the combinations. The numbers are relevant to the operationalization, which is explained in the next section of this paper.“

1978, Kenneth V. Lorimer


A learning task as a universe of discourse
FOS: 5.3 Educational Sciences
In: Lorimer, Kenneth V. (1978). Cybernetics and information processing in human learning with particular reference to adults. In: Trappl, Robert & Pask, Gordon (1978). Cybernetics of Cognition and Learning; Structure and Dynamics of Socio-economic Systems; Health Care Systems; Engineering Systems Methodology. Washington, London: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation. S. 22.

1978, Kenneth V. Lorimer
Fog. 1 A diagrammatic representation of a learning task being processed as a universe of discourse with conjunctive logic connections

For a given learning task there is an acceptable behavior or response which is required for the goal to be achieved. When a real-world learning task is given to the adult learner, he goes through an initial process of trying to recognize the task either as a set of problems or as a whole problem. In this learning path he tries to see whether there is an exemplar to match the whole or part of the problem. If none readily comes to mind then a cue search will take place within the environment such that the proportion of information or entropy is reduced. The matching of the exemplar with the real-world learning task is not based on the identical equal (=) but on fuzzy equal (≏). The inferences are made up conjunctively which may include the linking of a subset of a universal set of discourse and another subset of a different level of hierarchy in another universal set of discourse so that it bears a certain relation with the goal. A certain subset may be pushed down and connectives may also be made co-ordinatedly, that is, it is conjoined on a lateral basis. The order of the linking may be done sequentially OR simultaneously thus exhibiting a characteristic capacity for processing information which is to be found in the human and not in the digital computer. Figure 1 shows a glimpse of a visual picture of how the information process works. With this form of logic the student tends to use the logical consequence of the conjunction of two premises, so that if the premises are represented by P1 and P2 and the conclusion C in the form (Pz • P2) ⊃ C, then this may read:
if all educated men are intellectuals and all teachers are educated men then all teachers are intellectuals.

Concluding point
The logic used by the adult learner is only one aspect of my work but the advantage of knowing how the adult actually learns what we want him to learn would be to bring the adult learner closer to the learning task, thus eliminating a lot of mismatching between instructional OR teaching tasks and the logic of the information processing in the adult learner. Moreover, by knowing how the adult learner actually learns, it would lead us to make better instructional design and improve teacher training, and reduce trial and error in the learning situation which is time-consuming.

1978, Hartmut Bossel


Information processing and orientation of an actor system
FOS: 1.5 Earth and related environmental sciences
In: Bossel, Hartmut & Strobel, Michael (1978). Experiments with an „Intelligent“ World Model. London: IPC Business Press. S.194.

1978 Hartmut Bossel
Figure 2. information processing and orientation of an actor system

In our approach we see a social system as a concept-processing, purpose-oriented „actor” interacting with its environment (which may contain other such actors), A brief survey follows; a fuller account is given elsewhere.

The concept-processing actor
Concepts are information patterns which carry a certain meaning for the actor, eg „the house is on fire”, „environmental pollution”, „democracy”. His actions are understood as responses to the perception, recognition, and processing of concepts, with the aid of other concepts stored in his memory. This view goes beyond the classical stimulus-response type of unconditional, unreflected information processing, although the underlying sequence is similar. We believe that the behaviour of a social system can be approximated as the interaction of its dominant actors. In a simulation the choice of relevant actors is determined by the task itself, which also determines the degree of aggregation or disaggregation. Individuals, collectivities, organisations, and institutions can all be viewed as actors. Each actor can be considered as a concept-processing system interacting with its environment. Its essential functions are performed by its physical system containing the perceptors and effectors as well as the material part of the concept-processing system. The programs and concepts necessary for the cognitive processes are contained in a memory. While some of them are concepts about factual objects and relationships, others concern normative concepts and relationships (discussed later). The sequence of concept-processing (which may or may not lead to observable behaviour) is sketched in Figure 1 and in more detail in Figure 2. Information about the state of the system and its environment is received by the perceptors and transformed into concepts. These concepts may or may not correspond to the real state. Pattern recognition and filtering play a role here, along with other factors: cognitive abilities, world knowledge, affects, and emotions. The concepts about the system state are compared to available normative „orientor” concepts about a desirable state, if any are available. If such guiding images (ideals, Leitbilder) are not available — eg in a situation not previously encountered or considered — then the likely contributions of the situation (as perceived) to the satisfactions of the system’s interests and orientation must be determined. This requires a mapping of the (perceived) situation on the system’s orientation space, and a corresponding evaluation. In both cases (the comparison of the perceived situation with existing ideals, or its mapping on the system’s orientation space), discrepancies may result which determine priorities and motivations in the subsequent problem solving and policy search. A corresponding behavioural plan is then developed and tested using the internal model. Concepts about possible and probable resulting states are projected by the internal model and are again analysed as to their possible effect on, or violation of, orientor concepts.

1978, Jose F. Silvio


The educational system and the environment
FOS: 5.3 Educational Sciences
In: Silvio, Jose F.(1978). System theory and the educational system. In: Trappl, R. & Pask, G. [Eds.]. Progress in Cybernetics and Systems Research. Volume 4: Cybernetics of cognition and learning; Structure and dynamics of socio-economic systems. Washington, London: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation. S. 130.

1978, Jose F. Silvio
Fig. 3 Relationships between the educational system and its environment

IV. Dynamics of the educational system and ist environment

In this section, we will attempt to integrate the ideas so far developed in a relatively isolated way, to expose the dynamics of the educational system and its relation with ist environment. These relations are illustrated in Fig. 3.

An individual becomes a student when he contacts the educational system where he will suffer a transformation. He will become part of the system and will be involved in the relations occurring among the system elements. The educational system displays a combination of its various elements to initiate the transformation process: the educators will manipulate educational contents using certain techniques for transmitting them, and complying with certain norms fixed by the political system, and incorporated into the power structure of the pedagogical units where the transformation takes place, under direct control of directors and administrators.

After complying with the norms to transit the system, the individual could complete or not a given educational level and, according to this we have distinguished between finished and unfinished products. The meaning of each type of product is different within the frame of the system environment, depending on the value (economic, social or political) attributed to the legal symbols granted by the educational system (diplomas, certificate, etc.) The pro-ducts of the educational system will be incorporated as inputs (labor force) of the economic system. The structure of the labor force has a hierarchy based on differential functions in the production process. Thus, the educational system creates a hierarchical ordering of its products by the ordering of its subsystems (educational levels and branches), contributing in this way to maintain the occupational hierarchy and a set of economic relations within society. Similarly, the educational system contributes to reproduce a set of power relations occurring within the political system, since its products have differential rights and duties, and potential quotas of power and participation in decision making.

A certain proportion of the products of the educational system returns to it, as we have indicated in previous sections, in the form of operators inputs such as teachers, directors and administrators. The system feeds itself with a part of its own Product, controlling its behavior and creating conditions for self-reproduction.

1978, Stroud Cornock


The Systems paradigm
FOS: 6.4 Arts (arts, history of arts, performing arts, music)
In: Cornock, Stroud (1978). The structure of the systems paradigm. In: Trappl, R. & Pask, G. [Eds.]. Progress in Cybernetics and Systems Research. Volume 4: Cybernetics of cognition and learning; Structure and dynamics of socio-economic systems. Washington, London: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation. S. 142.

1978, Stroud Cornock
Fig. 3 The Structure of the Systems Paradigm · The elements are capitalized and bounded, and relationships between them are set in lower case. Open arrows indicate that the elements connected may be transformed into one another

4.2 System

A ’system‘ is the product of an organized set of subordinate entities, designed by a person to represent the organizational dimension of some real or imaginary state of affairs, in which components are so linked as demonstrably to be affected and affective with respect to the system. Its boundary thus offers resistance to the passage of all entities. The system may nevertheless be richly linked with tramontane entities: all systems so linked are active.

4.3 Types of System

(i) It would relieve the burden of jargon to encourage the convention that a system is an open system unless it is specified as a closed system; the prefix ‚open‘, i.e. ‚linked with entities beyond the boundary‘, is often implicit in current usage [7].
This usage is homologous with that employed to speak of men and madmen.
(ii) Where two systems are joined by linkage across their respective boundaries, they can be said to associate. Where the boundaries of systems intersect, those systems will share at least one subordinate entity: in this case it would be useful to designate the group of systems in question correlative. An example of a set of associated systems is provided by the case of an unwanted child (A), a fostering agency (B), and a childless couple (C), as set out in Fig.4. The systems will be dissociated by the state-change brought about by (B), and a set of correlative systems will be produced, viz. Fig.5. (Note: although, in Fig.5, the boundaries of the two systems intersect, for any component other than the child there remain two boundaries to membership of the other system.)
(iii) Where the boundary of a system envelops another system, the latter takes the special status ’structured component of a superordinate system‘, and must,‘ clearly, be designated sub-system, to avoid semantic confusion. In the case of an extended hierarchy of entities, as exemplified by the series FAMILY: COMMUNITY: RACE: SPECIES there may be a need to refer unambiguously to a system whose boundary: envelops a system already containing a sub-system: in this case the rather cumbersome locution supra-system is apparently unavoidable (and, correspondingly, sub-sub-system).
(iv) A group of systems within which there is a demonstrable path, along the inter-system and intra- system links, between any two components, can usefully be designated a family or a population of systerns.

4.4 Environment

The concept of system exists in opposition to the, concept of aggregate: ‚In aggregates it is significant that the parts are added; in a system it is significant that the parts are arranged‘, Angyal [5]. All that has been said above concerns (static) patterns of organized relationship between entities. The environs of a component are its fellow-components; the environs of a system its correlative and associated systems; the environs of a population of systems being other, populations of systems around and about. The word ‚environment‘ is thus employed by systems thinkers in the sense in which it came into use in the English language — to refer to the immediate surroundings of the subject of discussion. However, confusion can arise when certain entities are discussed (i) as though they were intrinsically environmental; or (ii) when the environment is specified as ‚that over which a manager has no control‘; or again (iii) where any entity with which the system under discussion interacts is treated as constituting its ‚environment‘. The structure of the systems paradigm offered in Fig.3 suggests a form of usage for the word ‚environment‘ — when used in the systems thinking context — that we may find it economical to encourage: in effect, it suggests that we avoid using the word when we might otherwise reasonably say ‚… now let’s have a look at those systems with which the system we are mainly concerned is correlated, or associated … ‚ or ‚…now let’s look at the surrounding population of components over which our system has no discernible control…‘, or ‚ … now let’s look at our system in a wider perspective … ‚.

However, phenomenal reality provides enough cases in which we are obliged to deal with systems that have rich organizational links with aggregated as well as systemic entities, that we have a case for considering the usage suggested in Fig.3. Thus a system worthy of serious attention is almost certain to have direct or indirect links with members of an aggregate population. Here there is (within the schema) no logical alternative to the use of the term ‚environment‘ to denote that population.

So, an environment will be constituted by the aggregated sum of the unorganized origins and terminations of links crossing the boundary of the system, or of any system with which it is linked. This gives a nominative sense to the use of the term in system discourse that is distinct from the use of the same word in ail adjectival sense to refer indiscriminately to the immediate surroundings.

1979, Erik Christopher Zeeman


Ideologies
FOS: 1.1 Mathematics
In: Zeeman, E.C. (1979). A Geometrical Model of Ideologies. In: Renfrew, C . & Cooke, K.L. Eds. (1979). Transformations: Mathematical Approaches to Culture Change. London, Oxford, Boston et.al.: Academic Press. S.468.

1979, E. C. Zeeman
FIGURE 20.3. The surface of ideologies.

The Shape of M

Suppose p is a parameter point on a conflict line. We translate the sociological notion of „conflicting opinions at p“ into the mathematical notion of bimodality of Fp; in other words, we assume Fp has two local maxima, and so M is two-sheeted over a neighborhood of p. Now globalize this notion by assuming that F is bimodal over neighborhoods N1, N2 of the two conflict lines L1, L2 , and is unimodal otherwise. We call N1, N2 the conflict regions; they are shown shaded in Figure 20.3. As we leave either side of a conflict region one of the two modes is preserved and the other has to disappear; we assume, further, that one of the modes is preserved on one side and the other on the other side. Therefore S has an S-shaped fold over N1. Meanwhile L2 terminates in the point K, and by Hypothesis 3 the only way an S-shaped fold can terminate is in a cusp (Markus 1977; Zeeman n.d.); therefore, S has a cusp singularity at K. Summarizing our assumptions and deductions into a single hypothesis we obtain 

Hypothesis 4.

The projection x: S → P has fold curves and a cusp singularity as shown in Figure 20.3. The reader will observe that we have drawn S in Figure 20.3 as if it were sitting in three dimensions rather than in the (2 + n)-dimensional space P x X. We justify this in a later section. Meanwhile notice that our discussion of folds and cusps is independent of the ambient space in which S happens to be sitting. The following deductions from Hypothesis 4 are also independent of the ambient space. M has two components M1 and M2, whose projections overlap on N1. The projection of M2 overlaps itself on N2. The complementary subsurface S-M has two components S1, S2 shown shaded in Figure 20.3, that project onto N1, N2; however, the components S1, S2 are sociologically meaningless because they represent saddle points of F, around which no opinion points cluster. 

1980, Gordon Pask


The limits of togetherness
FOS: 5.1 Psychologie
In: Pask, Gordon (1980). Limits of Togetherness. Proceedings, Invited Keynote address to IFIP. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company. S. 1003.

1980, Gordon Pask
Fig 2: An A, B, conversation in Language L, as a result of which, if agreement is reached, some of A's procedures can be executed and reproduced as part of ConBT and some of B's procedures can be executed ans reproduced as part of ConAT. Symbol ⟺ is isomorphism. TA is part, or all, of TA, and T*B is part, or all of TB

2.3. Conversation

A conversation is sketched in Fig 2. Here, the stable concepts of A and B are „organisationally closed“ but also „informationally open“ . Conversation, the act of concept sharing, is a process of conjoint concept execution, by participants A and B, as a result of which the agreed part of the concept is distributed or shared and cannot be functionally assigned „to A“ or „to B“.

In Fig 2 participant A is shown as constructing and reproducing a concept for TA (a circle) from concepts for PA (a plane) and QA (a compass); B constructs and reproduces a concept for TB from concepts for RB (cylinder) and SB (slice).

These (collective) derivations are conveniently represented by the shorthand notation in Fig 3.

As a result of agreement both A and B have concepts that are distributive derivations represented by the same shorthand notation, in Fig 4, where T*, P*, Q*, R* , S*, are the names of shared concepts.

Under what circumstances may A and B converse (learn, do each others‘ intellectual labour, as in Fig 2)?

One prerequisite of conversation is proximity or togetherness. But if, as submitted, togetherness is increasingly a matter of communication and computation, then an answer in terms of neighbourhood (A and B, persons in the same room) is valid, but exceptionally specialised. Further, if A and B are close for any reason, this does not guarantee conversation. They might, instead, retain the integrity of Leibnizian Monads. It is often possible to find reasons why A and B will benefit from conversing, as in cooperative action. These reasons are compelling and occasionally sufficient; quite literally A and B must converse if they are to survive. But, just as physical proximity is a specialist answer to the initial question (A and B may converse because they are together), so these constitute very specialised answers to why they must converse on some occasions.

Stated in these terms, which seem appropriate in the context of an information environment, the limits of togetherness are:

(a) complete saturation (organisational closure and no information transfer);

(b) the type of „supersaturation“ that yields an indefinitely large number of replicas (imaging systems which, being replicas, do not need to converse for they have nothing to say).

The designers of an information environment would be wise to avoid these limits, however the limits are expressed.

1980, Eduard Pestel


Deutschland-Modell (Weltmodell)
FOS: 1.1 Mathematics
In: Pestel, Eduard/ Bauerschmid, Rolf/ Gottwald, Michael/ Hübl, Lothar/ Möller, Klaus-Peter/ Oest, Wolfgang/ Ströbele, Wolfgang (1980). Das Deutschland-Modell · Herausforderungen auf dem Weg ins 21. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag. S. 27.

1980, Eduard Pestel et.al.
Abb. 2: Übersicht über das Deutschland-Modell und das Mesarović-Pestel-Weltmodell

Es wurde bisher erläutert, welches methodische Vorgehen zur modell­mäßigen Erfassung bestimmter Problemfelder notwendig ist. Diese er­kannten Problemfelder stellen bestimmte Anforderungen an das zu ent­wickelnde Modellsystem. Um zunächst einen Oberblick über das gesam­te Deutschland-Modell zu geben, werden daher im folgenden die einzel­nen Teilmodelle kurz beschrieben:

Die Abbildung 2 (rechts) zeigt die Gesamtstruktur des Deutschland-Mo­dells und des angekoppelten Mesarović-Pestel-Weltmodells. Die im ver­einfachten Blockdiagramm dargestellten Teilmodelle wurden für 13 Weltregionen erarbeitet und miteinander über ein differenziertes Wel­thandelsmodell gekoppelt. Das Deutschland-Modell besteht aus
– Bevölkerungsmodell
– Ausbildungsmodell
– Wirtschaftsmodell
– Technologiemodell (Arbeit, Energie) sowie
– Prozeßmodellen.

Bevölkerungsmodell

Das Bevölkerungsmodell hat die Aufgabe, die zu erwartende Bevöl­kerungsentwicklung zu berechnen, um daraus Auswirkungen auf die Konsumnachfrage abzuleiten und in Verbindung mit dem Ausbildungs­modell die Zahl der Erwerbspersonen zu ermitteln.
Dazu ist es notwendig, die Bevölkerung nach Alter, Geschlecht und Staatsangehörigkeit aufzugliedern.

Ausbildungsmodell

Das Ausbildungsmodell dient in Verbindung mit dem Bevölkerungsmo­dell zur Berechnung der Ausbildungsstufe der aus dem Bildungssystem Entlassenen. Daraus werden die Aussbildungsqualifikation abgeleitet und der Zeitpunkt des Ausscheidens aus dem Bildungssystem bestimmt, um die Zahl der Erwerbspersonen zu ermitteln.
Dazu ist es notwendig, daß die Bildungsstufen von der Grundschule bis zum Hochschulstudium in dem Modell enthalten sind und über die Abgangs- beziehungsweise Übergangsquoten Aussagen getroffen werden.

Wirtschaftsmodell

Das Wirtschaftsmodell hat die Aufgabe, die wirtschaftlichen Entwick­lungsmöglichkeiten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland unter verschiedenen Aspekten zu schätzen. Bestimmt werden muß hierzu auf der Ange­botsseite
– die Entwicklung des Produktionspotentials
– die dazu erforderlichen Investitionen
und auf der Nachfrageseite
– die Nachfragewirkung der Investitionen
– Tendenzen der privaten Konsumnachfrage
– der Einfluß des Staatsverbrauchs
– die weltwirtschaftliche Verknüpfung über Importe und Exporte.
Für diese differenzierte Aufgabe wird die Wirtschaft sektoral, das heißt branchenmäßig, gegliedert, die Verflechtung zwischen diesen Sektoren berücksichtigt und die sowohl auf der Nachfrage- als auch auf der Ange­botsseite wirkenden Investitionen werden im Modell selbst bestimmt.

Technologiemodell

Das Technologiemodell ergibt den mit einer bestimmten wirtschaft­lichen Entwicklung verbundenen Bedarf an
– Arbeit
– Energie und
– Materialien.
Da die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung nur ein Faktor bei der Abschätzung des Bedarfs an diesen Einsatzfaktoren ist, müssen zusätzliche Annahmen über organisatorisch und technologisch bedingte Veränderungen des spezifischen Einsatzes an Arbeit, Energie und Material in das Modell eingeführt werden.

Verkopplung mit dem Mesarović-Pestel-Weltmodell

Das Weltmodell hat die Aufgabe, die globale Entwicklung abzuschätzen, wobei neben der Entwicklung der Weltwirtschaft die Problembereiche
– Bevölkerungslawine in den Entwicklungsländern in Verbindung mit dem Nahrungsmittelbedarf
– Weltweite Energieversorgung
– Weltweite Materialversorgung
– Internationale Arbeitsteilung
angesprochen werden. Außerdem lassen sich die Probleme des Nord-Süd-Gefälles analysieren sowie Wirkungen und Rückwirkungen unterschiedlicher Entwicklungsmaßnahmen untersuchen. Die Bundesrepublik Deutschland ist über die Export-lmportwerte mit dem Weltmodell verkoppelt. Damit ergeben sich aus dem Weltmodell für die Bundesrepublik her Aussagen über
– Unterschiedliche Absatzchancen für die wichtigsten deutschen Exportindustrien auf dem Weltmarkt
– Optionen für die Energie- und Rohstoffverfügbarkeit
– Auswirkungen bei der Bewältigung des Nord-Süd-Konfliktes.

Kopplung der Teilmodelle zu einem Modellsystem

Die einzelnen Teilmodelle weisen mehrere Kopplungsstellen auf, die beim jetzigen Stand der Modelle zumeist nur in einer Richtung wirken. Dies hat den Vorteil, daß das Modellsystem überschaubar bleibt und eine Vielzahl von Einzeluntersuchungen möglich ist. Ein Beispiel mag dies verdeutlichen:
Wenn man etwa verschiedene Energiestrategien bei gleicher wrtschaftlicher Entwicklung durchspielen will, kann man sich auf den Energieteil beschränken, wobei man die vorher berechneten Ergebnisse der anderen Modellteile verwendet. Es müssen nicht jeweils alle Teilmodelle erneut durchlaufen werden. Dieses Verfahren ist bei einem Modell vom Umfang des Deutschland-Modells vorteilhafter als die durchaus mögliche Integration des gesamten Modellsystems.