Typology of violence

Cultural violence
Structural violence

Galtung, Johan (2004). Transcend and Transform. An Introduction to Conflict Work. London: Pluto Books. S.114.
  • Conflict studies enable us to meet or approach conflicts with empathy, non-violence and creativity.
  • Peace studies enable us to prevent violence through equality and equity.
  • Reconciliation studies enable us to prevent future violence through healing and closure after the violence of the past.

Healing and closure are to violence what transcendence and transformation are to conflict: the problems dissolve. And the less structural violence there is in a society – with suppression, exploitation, divide and rule, exclusion – the less there is of cultural violence – with efforts to legitimise structural and direct violence – the more peace. Peace is also prophylaxis. Peace enables us to face new conflicts peacefully. Peace makes people great because they are less victims of structural and cultural violence between genders, generations and races, between classes, states and nations, between regions and civilisations.